Iberia and Rome

IBERIA AND ROME

THE EXCAVATIONS OF THE PALACE AT DEDOPLIS GORA AND THE ROMAN INFLUENCE IN THE CAUCASIAN KINGDOM OF IBERIA

EDITED BY

A. FURTWÄNGLER

I. GAGOSHIDZE

H. LÖHR

N. LUDWIG

Beier & Beran

Langenweißbach

2008

Contents

Remarks

Preface

1. Kartli in Hellenistic and Roman Times. General Aspects  Iulon Gagoshidze

Introduction

The Contacts of Iberia with Classical Antiquity

State Borders of Iberia

Rome and Iberia. Military and Political Relations

Iberia and Parthia

Monetary Circulation

Trade Routes and Imports

Literacy

Iron Metallurgy

Climate and Agriculture

Architecture

Sacral Architecture – The Temples at Dedoplis Mindori

Urban Architecture – Uplistsikhe

Fortifications

The Greek Orders in Iberia

Roofing Tiles

Construction Methods

2. Dedoplis Gora – One of the Most Important Archaeological Sites on the Territory

of the Ancient Iberia  Iulon Gagoshidze

3. The Palace at Dedoplis Gora. A Survey of Transcaucasian Monumental Architecture in Hellenistic and Early Roman Times  Florian S. Knauß 

The Late Hellenistic-Early Imperial Building at Dedoplis Gora

Some Remarks on the Development of Monumental Architecture in Georgia from its Beginnings to the Arrival of the Romans

Comparison and Classification of the Complex at Dedoplis Gora, and of Other Large Transcaucasian Buildings of the Hellenistic and Early Roman Periods

Later Developments and Conclusion

4. The Finds of Dedoplis Gora and their Context

4.1. Pottery  Tinatin Chanishvili

Imported Pottery (cat. nos. 1-13)

Local Pottery (cat. nos. 14-143)

Catalog

4.2. Bone Objects  Iulon  Gagoshidze

Objects for Playing and Fortune-Telling (cat. nos. 1-75)

Sculptures (cat. nos. 76-77)

Containers (cat. nos. 78-98)

Instruments (cat. nos. 99-127)

Catalog

4.3. Excursus: The Skylla Relief  Florian S. Knauß

4.4. Weapons  Iulon Gagoshidze

Bows and Arrows (cat. nos. 1-17)

Spearheads and Butts (cat. nos. 18-25)

Dagger (cat. no. 26)

Armor (cat. nos. 27-38)

Parts of Horse’s Harness (cat. nos. 39-40)

Catalog

4.5. Metal Implements  Iulon Gagoshidze

Agricultural and Household Implements (cat. nos. 1-39)

Toiletry Article (cat. nos. 40-49)

Locks and Keys (cat. nos. 50-53)

Catalog

4.6. Metal Vessels and Furniture  Henryk Löhr

Bronze Vessels (cat. nos. 1-15)

Bronze Instruments (cat. nos. 16-20)

Furniture (cat. nos. 21-32)

Iron Vessels (cat. nos. 33-38)

Iron Lamps (cat. nos. 39-48)

Catalog

4.7. Jewelry  Nana Gogiberidze

Faience Pendants (cat. nos. 1-13)

Beads (cat. nos. 14-144)

Metal Jewelry (cat. nos. 145-185)

Catalog

5. Selected Archaeological Material of the Roman Period from Whole Iberia Including the Finds of Dedoplis Gora

5.1. Engraved Gems and Impressions of Seals and Clay-Bullae  Ketevan Javakishvili

Hellenistic and Roman Gems and Impressions of Gems

Bullae

Catalog of gems (cat. nos. 1-83)

Catalog of bullae

Bullae with Impressions of Local Seals (cat. nos. 1-18)

Bullae with Impressions of Hellenistic and Roman Gems (cat. nos. 19-40)

5.2. Glass Vessels  Mariam Saginashvili

Mold-pressed Vessels (cat. nos. 1-5)

Millefiori (cat. nos. 6-8)

Mold-blown Vessels (cat. nos. 9-32)

Free-blown Vessels (cat. nos. 33-65)

Catalog

5.3. Monetary Circulation in Iberia in the 1st Century B.C.–1st Century A.D.  Medea Sherozia

Classical and Hellenistic Coins

Parthian Coins

Roman Republican Coins

Roman Imperial Coins

List of Coins

5.4. The Armazian Script  Grigol Giorgadze (†)

6.  Catalog of Sites  Iulon Gagoshidze

Appendix: Analysis of the Plant Remains of Dedoplis Gora  Nana Rusishvili

Bibliography

Plates